Kamis, 02 Februari 2012

Potatoes


Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a plant of the Solanaceae tribe that has an edible tuber stem and is called "potato" as well. Potato tuber has now become one of the important staple food in Europe, although at first imported from South America.
Spanish and Portuguese explorers first brought to Europe and the breeding of this crop in the XVI century. With this new menu quickly spread across parts of Europe. In the history of European migration to America, this plant had been a major trigger of the Irish migration to America in the 19th century, when the outbreak on the mainland Irish tubers caused by a type of fungus called ergot.

Planting Method
The distance depends on plant varieties, 80 cm x 40 cm or 70 x 30 cm with the needs of seedlings + 1300-1700 kg / ha (tuber weight 30-45 g). Planting time at the end of the rainy season (April to June).

A. Maintenance of Plant
Stitching
Replanting to replace plants that do not grow / grows ugly done 15 days since grown.

Weeding
Weeding done at least twice during the 2-3 days before planting / fertilizing in conjunction with follow-up and tilling.

Pruning Flowers
At flowering varieties of potatoes which should be trimmed to prevent disruption of tuber formation process, because struggle of nutrients occurs.

Irrigation

B. Pests and Diseases
Pest
Grayak caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
Aphids (Aphis Sp)
Orong-Orong (Gryllotalpa Sp)
Root borer (Phtorimae poerculella Zael)
Pests trip (Thrips tabaci)

Disease
Late blight
Bacterial wilt disease
Tuber rot disease
Fusarium diseases
Dry spot disease (Early Blight)
Disease because the virus

Viruses that attack are: (1) Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) causes leaf curl, (2) Potato virus X (PVX) causes latent mosaic on leaves, (3) Potato Virus Y (PVY) causing mosaic or local necrosis; ( 4) Potato Virus A (PVA) causes mosaic software, (5) Potato virus M (PVM) causes mosaic roll, (6) Potato Virus S (PVS) causing mosaic limp. Symptoms: in the attack, plants grow stunted, straight and pale with kecil-kecil/tidak tuber yield at all; leaf yellowing and tissue death. The spread of viruses carried by farm equipment, aphids Aphis spiraecola, A. gossypii and Myzus persicae, and Coccinella Epilachna beetles and nematodes. Control: no pesticides to control the virus, prevention and control is done by planting virus-free seedlings, cleaning equipment, prune and burn diseased plants, control vector with BVR and do PESTONA or crop rotation.

Pepper


Cayenne or red pepper or chilies are fruits and plants of the genus Capsicum. The fruit can be classified as a vegetable or spice, depending on how it is used. As a spice, spicy chilies are very popular in Southeast Asia as a food flavor enhancer.

Chili or chilli including Solanaceae and is an easy crop planted in the lowlands or the highlands. Chili plants contain lots of vitamin A and vitamin C and contain essential oils capsaicin, which causes the flavor and spicy heat to provide warmth when used for spices (herbs). Chillies can be grown easily so that it can be used for daily needs without having to buy in the market.

Chilli crop planted on suitable soil rich in humus, loose and the nest and not waterlogged; ideal soil pH around 5-6. Planting time is good for dry land is at the end of the rainy season (March-April). To obtain the high price of chili, can also be done in October and harvested in December, although there is a risk of failure. Chilli plants propagated through seeds from plants grown healthy and free of pests and diseases. Chilli fruit that has been selected for seed dried in the sun to dry. If enough heat in the past five days have been dry and then retrieved seeds: For the area of ​​one hectare takes about 2-3 kg of chilli fruit (300-500 g of seeds).

How to grow chillies actually relatively similar to how to plant tomatoes because it is one of two plants of Solanaceae family. How to plant and how to plant chili pepper of course there are differences. Struktus fidiologis different plants will certainly make jenih pest attacks on chili peppers and red chili is different. Although in general the actual technique is the same plant.

The most important and essential in planting chillies is land. What is meant here is a land of heavy foundation that will use planting media. Land would be planted chili must be at ph 5-6, crumbly, and rich in humus. If the soil is acidic or often planted with a single plant family, it is important for the addition of agricultural lime or dolomite to raise the ph. The addition of lime to raise ph is already a solution of 50% of soil fertility constraints, the copy was also the addition of dolomite can both provide an element of calcium in the soil that is needed when flowering plants later. Highly recommended to plant chili using black plastic mulch silver with black position below and above the silver color.